Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
Ekirch AR. The Modernization of Western Sleep: Or, Does Insomnia have a History?. Past & Present. 2015 Feb 1; 226(1):149-92. Unfortunately this paper is not freely available, 24 Hours access costs €35.00, £27.00 or USD $44.00 here. Because this paper is not easily available, in addition to discussing the references in the footnotes, below,  I have discussed the numerous statements that Ekirch makes that he does not support with references here In Ekirch’s second paper he repeats much of the information given in his original paper and only offers a few additional references that he claims supports his hypothesis concerning segmented sleep, however these actually provide no more evidence of the existence of segmented sleep as they are all flawed in the same way as those given in the original paper. Interestingly despite the supposed wealth of evidence Ekirch reuses a large number of references from his first paper and uses a number of new references repeatedly. For some reason Ekirch seeks justification for his hypothesis concerning segmented sleep from a number of quotes where people refer to the existence of segmented sleep, unfortunately this is not done so on the basis of original  research but simply from an uncritical and unquestioning reading of Ekirch original paper or from the press coverage it received. Footnote 1 Footnote 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 Footnote 5 Footnote 7 Footnote 8 Footnote 9 Footnote 10 Footnote 11 Footnote 12 Footnote 13 Footnote 14 Footnote 15 Footnote 16 Footnote 17 Footnote 18 Footnote 19 Footnote 20 Footnote 22 Footnote 25 Footnote 26 Footnote 27 Footnote 28 Footnote 29 Footnote 30 Footnote 31 Footnote 32 Footnote 33 Footnote 34 Footnote 35 Footnote 36 Footnote 37 Footnote 38 Footnote 39 Footnote 40 Footnote 41 Footnote 42 Footnote 43 Footnote 44 Footnote 45 Footnote 46 Footnote 47 Footnote 48 Footnote 49 Footnote 50 Footnote 51 Footnote 52 Footnote 53 Footnote 54 Footnote 55 Footnote 56 Footnote 57 Footnote 58 Footnote 59 Footnote 60 Footnote 61 Footnote 62 Footnote 63 Footnote 64 Footnote 65 Footnote 66 Footnote 67 Footnote 68 Footnote 69 Footnote 70 Footnote 71 Footnote 72 Footnote 73 Footnote 74 Footnote 75 Footnote 76 Footnote 81 Footnote 82 Footnote 83 Footnote 84 Footnote 85 Footnote 86 Footnote 87 Footnote 88 Footnote 89 Footnote 90 Footnote 91 Footnote 92 Footnote 93 Footnote 94 Footnote 95 Footnote 96 Footnote 97 Footnote 98 Footnote 99 Footnote 101 Footnote 102 Footnote 103 Footnote 104 Footnote 105 Footnote 106 Footnote 107 Footnote 108 Footnote 109 Footnote 110 Footnote 111 Footnote 112 Footnote 113 Footnote 114 Footnote 115 Footnote 116 Footnote 117 Footnote 118 Footnote 119 Footnote 120 Footnote 121 Footnote 122 Footnote 123 Footnote 124 Footnote 125 Footnote 126 Footnote 127 Footnote 128 Footnote 129 Footnote 130 Footnote 131 Footnote 132 Footnote 133 Footnote 134
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