Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK These “fresh” “compelling” references can be found here Despite claiming that the following five sources are “fresh” Ekirch has in fact quoted them before in exactly the same way in his papers * Tobias Venner, Viae Rectae ad Vitam Longam (London, 1623), p. 8. (See my discussion here) * Cautionary Rules for Preventing the Sickness; Published by Order of the Lord Mayor (London, 1665), p. 6. (See my discussion here) * C. Lamb, Mrs. Leicester’s School . .  . (London, 1821), p. 142 (see my discussion here) * Jeremy Penner, “Nocturnal Prayer in the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Studia Liturgica, 44 (2014), note 7, p. 236. (see my discussion here) * William Holladay, “Indications of Segmented Sleep in the Bible,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 69 (2007): 215–221. (see my discussion here) * John Hancocke, Febrigugum Magnum: Or, Common Water . . . (London, 1723), p. 29. here “When I went to Bed I drank a glass of water, and set another by me to drink after my first sleep.” The full quote is “The next Spring, as near as I could re member, the ſame Week in April, the jaundice came again, with a violent Cough. Then I confeſs I was afraid, by reaſon of the Breach in my Lungs, I ſhould not get through it. I met with a Friend, that adviſed me to take a little Powder of Yellow Amber in half a Pint of cold Water. I took it, and found my Cough ſtopt immediately. The firſt Thought I had was, it could hardly be the Amber, but the Water, that muſt do it ſo ſoon. Some Hours after, when my Cough grew troubleſome, I took half a Pint of Water, without the Amber, and found it had the ſame Effect ; when I went to Bed I drank a Glaſs of Water, and ſet another by me to drink after my firſt Sleep. I ſlept quietly that Night, and in the Morning found my ſelf in a fine eaſy gentle Sweat, cool ed my ſelf a little, got up, and was much better, I continu'd to drink Water ſeveral Times that Day, and the Day after, and found my ſelf both Mornings after, in a gentle Sweat,  and was ſtill better. And the fourth Morning was not in any Sweat at all, and was well the Cough, the Fever, and Jaundice gone. The quote describes them sleeping “quietly that night” with no evidence that they drank the second half pint. There is nothing in this passage to suggest anything other than that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here) *The Complete Family-Piece: and, Country Gentleman, and Farmer’s Best Guide (London, 1737), p. 50. heret "“With half a dram of dioscordium, and let the patient take it either going to bed, or early in the morning after his first sleep.” The full quote For a Diarrhea, Looſeneſs, or Flux of the Belly. Mix up 15 Grains, or if the Diffemper be but ſlight, to Grains of powder'd Rhubarb, with half a Dram of Diaſcordium, and let the Patient take it either going to Bed, or early in the Morning after his firſt Sleep. There is nothing in this passage to suggest anything other than that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here) * A History of the Lives and Sufferings of the Principal English Protestant Martyrs . . . (London, 1746), p. 460. here “And that night, (as he had done all the way,) he eat his meat quickly, and slept his first sleep soundly, as it was reported by them of the guard . . . . After his first sleep he continued in prayer until the morning . . . .” The full quote The Prisoner was lodged that Night at one Ingram's House in Gloucester, where, as he had done all the Way, he eat his Meat quietly, and slept his first Sleep soundly, as it was reported by the Guard and others about him, After his first Sleep, he continued all that Night in Prayer till Morning, and then he desired, that he might go into the next Chamber, (for the Guard were also in the Chamber where he lay) that being there alone, he might pray more freely ; so all that Day, except a little Time at his Meat, and when he talked with those, whom the Guard gave Leave to speak to him, he bestowed in Prayer. There is nothing in this passage to suggest anything other than that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here) * Bacon, Francis, The Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban, And Lord High Chancellor of England (London, 1765) I, pp. 152, 428. here P152 “For which I have compounded an ointment of excellent odour, which I call Roman ointment; vide the receipt. The use of it would be between sleeps; for in the latter sleep the parts assimilate chiefly.” P428 “Once in the week, or at least in the fortnight, to take the water of mithridate distilled, with three parts to one, or strawberry water to allay it; and some grains of nitre and saffron, in the morning between sleeps.” There needs to be a stretch of the imagination to believe these passages are a description of segmented sleep give Bacon’s clear advice on P.151 that one should, when ill, sleep in the morning after breakfast to which these passage clearly allude P151 Therefore in aged men, and weak bodies, and such as abound not with choler, a short sleep after dinner doth help to nourish ; for in such bodies there is no fear of an over-hasty digestion, which is the inconvenience of postmeridian sleeps. Sleep also in the morning, after the taking of somewhat of easy digestion as milk from the cow, nourishing broth, or the like, doth further nourishment : but this should be done sitting upright, that the milk or broth may pass the more speedily to the bottom of the stomach. * The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, July 7, 1773  here “Q. What o'clock did you go to bed that night?                                                    Burn. Almost twelve.                                                                                                 Q. What part did you lie in?                                                                                 Burn. The middle room; there are two rooms upon one floor.                                    Q. Where did Mrs. Whitefield lie?                                                                        Burn. In the fore room.                                                                                              Q. How came you to be up so late?                                                               Burn. My husband was in liquor, and I dare not then disturb him till he has had his first sleep.” There is nothing in this passage to suggest anything other than that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here)  * The Workes of Aristotle, . . . . (London, 1777), pp. 357-58. here   “When coition is over, some further directions are necessary; and therefore let the vanquished bridegroom (for he must needs be vanguished that has in the encounter lost his artillery) take heed how he retreats too soon out of the field of love, lest he should hereby leave an entrance too open, and some inimick colds should strike into the womb. But after he has given time for the matrix to close up, and make all sure, he may withdraw, and leave the bride unto her first repose; which ought to be with all the calmness that the silent night (and a mind free from all disturbing care) can give, inclining her to rest on her right side, and not removing without great occasion till she has taken her first sleep.” The full quote is,  “But then, in the second place, when coition is over, some further directions are necessary; and therefore let the vanquished bridegroom (for he must needs be vanquished that has in the encounter lost his artillery) take heed how he retreats too soon out of the field of love, lest he should hereby leave an entrance too open, and some inimick cold should strike into the womb. But after he has given time for the matrix to close up, and make all sure, he may withdraw, and leave the bride unto her first repose; which ought to be with all the calmness that the silent night (and a mind free from all disturbing care) can give, inclining her to rest on her right side, and not removing without great occasion till she has taken her first sleep.” In order for this passage to have any relevance to Ekirch’s conception of segmented sleep one would have to believe that the ancient Greeks only tried to conceive children just before going to bed at night, thus is of course a ludicrous suggestion, this is made clear by another translation of this passage  Aristotle's complete master-piece, in two parts : displaying the secrets of nature in the generation of man ... To which is added, A treasure of health; or The family physician; being choice and approved remedies for all the several distempers incident to the human body by Aristotle,  William, Salmon, 1644-1713 Publication date 1820 here  And when they have done what nature requires, a man must have a care he does not part too soon from the embraces of his wife, lest some sudden interposing cold, should  strike into the womb, and occasion a miscarriage and thereby deprive them of the fruit of their labour. And when, after some convenient time, the man hath withdrawn himself, let the woman gently betake herself to rest, with all imaginable serenity and composure of mind, from all anxious and disturbing thoughts, or any other kind of perturbation whatsoever. And let her as much as she can forbear turning herself from that side on which she first reposed. And by all means lot her avoid coughing and sneezing, which by its violent concussions of the body is a great enemy to conception, if it happens soon after the act of coition. *Rev. J. Collinson, The Life of Thuanus (London, 1807), p. 234. here “[N. Le Fevre] “devoted himself to a course of uninterrupted study. His biographer, M. Le Begue, relates this particularity in his manner of life: ‘After waking from his first sleep, he regularly left his bed, and, wrapping a monk’s hood round his head, in winter, exployed two hours in prayer and reading. He then enjoyed a light sleep, and arose again, in summer, with the dawn of day, and in winter at five or six o’clock.” The full quote is He was gifted with a most tenacious memory, and lived to amass an astonishing store of erudition: and almost all the learned men, who were his contemporaries, bear witness to his piety, learning, and mild and inoffensive disposition. Being pressed, when young, by a friend, to make some advances towards an advantageous marriage, he replied, "he replied, " I wish I may be as firm in all my good resolutions through life, as I am in the determination of never marrying." He persevered in this resolve, and devoted himself to a course of uninterrupted study.  His biographer, M. Le Begue, relates this particularity in his manner of life : — " After waking from his first sleep, he regularly left his bed, and, wrapping a monk's hood round his head, in winter, employed two hours in prayer and reading. He then enjoyed a-light sleep, and arose again, in summer, with the dawn of day, and in winter at five or six o'clock." This passage clearly describes a singular devotion to uninterrupted study and can hardly be taken as evidence of segmented sleep being the predominant mode of slumber   *Othello-Travestie: In Three Acts with Burlesque Notes . . . (London, 1813), p. 65. here   “’your first sleep.’” . . . “The meaning is this: - human sleep is dividable into distinct portions of time: - the first of these is naturally most remedial to the frame: - consequently a disturbance from its balm is the more distressing.” This partial quote relaters to the line on page 28 Thus to be bother'd out of your first sleep! (h) P.28 H —"your first sleep.” The first secession from affectional  alertness which she experienced since her arrival in Cyprus.  An exquisite touch of nature! Warburton. —— “your first sleep,'' I lament that the objectionable pruriency of this interpretation should create a discrepance between the Reverand Commentator's opinion and my own. The meaning is this: — human sleep is dividable into distinct portions of time:-the first of these is naturally most remedial to the frame : — consequently a disturbance from its balm is the more distressing. Caliban "cried to sleep again," and with more reason might Desdmona. Johnson. What is surprising is that Ekirch misses the original line, omits the first part of the quote and only partial quotes the foot note shows that there is a discrepancy in the interpretation of ;’ first sleep’.  Also the description is correct for deep sleep being predominate in the first third of the night and in no way suggest a period of wakefulness between these “portions of time” *The Observant Pedestrian Mounted or a Donkey Tour to Brighton (London, 1815), II, p. 23 here “I had just waked out of my first sleep, and heard the clock strike two, when the quick and repeated call of watch! fire! watch! gave me, I confess, a momentary alarm.” For some reason Ekirch truncates this quote, The full quote is punctuation as in the original I HAD just waked out of my first sleep, and heard the clock strike two, when the quick and repeated call of watch! fire! watch! fire! gave me, I confess, a momentary alarm, and induced me to jump out of bed and throw up the window, by which means I distinctly caught the sound and sense of my unpleasant disturbers, which proceeded from the drunken frolic of two wags, reeling home, on the opposite side of the way, each calling to the other the names of “Watts" and "Pryor,” which, loud and emphatically repeated in the dead of night, was sufficient to have raised an alarm through the whole town; so, drawing down the sash, perfectly satisfied of my safety, I was just stepping into bed again, when a loud knocking at my door and a female voice demanded my attention. There is nothing in this passage to suggest anything other than that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here) *Ann Ryley, Fanny Fitz-York, Heiress of Tremorne (London, 1818), III, p. 417. here   “A bright sun, and clothes of every description suited for the morning, tempted her to rise; though she was doubtful whether any of the family, except servants, would be stirring at nine o’clock. ‘Nine o’clock!’ exclaims some sluggard of fashion, ‘why, I am in my first sleep at that hour!” The full quote A bright sun, and clothes of every description suited for the morning, tempted her to rise; though she was doubtful whether any of the family, except servants, would be stirring at nine o'clock. “Nine o'clock!" exclaims some sluggard of fashion, “why, I am in my first sleep at that hour !” That may be, fair lady, but my heroine has been accustomed to early rising; and no dissipation of the evening, however late, could tempt her to infringe upon it. I am not ignorant that people of fashion never quit their pillows at nine o'clock; but it was the hour of breakfast wherever Lady Ann presided ; and, her daughter's borrowed habiliments were adjusted at the usual time. This quote puts first sleep as occurring at 9am which hardly supports Ekirch’s idea that “human slumber consisted of two intervals, bridged by a period of wakefulness, with most persons, following a normal bedtime, naturally awakening after the “first sleep”- unless it was prematurely disturbed (e.g. by another individual or noise) – around midnight or in the first hours of morning”   *Major-General Pillet, Views of England, During a Residence of Ten Years; Six of Them as a Prisoner of War (Boston, 1818), p. 137. here   “It is reckoned that in England, at least three or four women are annually executed for murdering or poisoning their husbands. The assassination is generally performed in bed. A wife who suffers from the brutality of her drunken husband, seizes him in that state, and during his first sleep." This quote gives no indication as to when ‘first sleep’ occurs  and it could just as well be explained by my contention that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here) *Stefano Egido Petroni, Corso di Lingua Italiana (London, 1826), p. 47-48. here   "You sleep then very soundly?"  "Yes, particularly in my first sleep." The full dialogue is PARTE SECONDA. DIALOGHI. s . Il Salito del Mattino; Forms of Salutation; the Morning. Signóra, Madáma; Signore; Madamigèlla, Signorina, vi aúguro il buòn giorno; vi dò, &c.; buòn giórno; Ma dam; Sir; Miss, I wish you a good morning. Ve l'aſguro egualmente; fo anch'io lo stesso; I wish it you likewise. Come avete dormito la scorsa nòtte ? how did you sleep last night? Benissimo. E voi? very well And you ? Non del tutto bène; not so well. Perchè ? Avevate qualche inquietidine? why? Were you under any uneasiness? Nò; ma i tuòni m'hanno impedito di dormire; no; but the thunder hindered me from sleeping. Io non li ho sentiti; I did not hear it. Dormite voi dunque profondamente? you sleep then very soundly? Sì, specialmente nel primo sonno; yes, particularly in my first sleep.  Ne sono stata atterrita; I was frightened. Avéte dunque gran paſira de tuòni? you are then much afraid of thunder?  Lo confesso: vi son pòchi che non ne abbian timóre; I confess it: there are " people who are not afraid of it. Senza dubbio, è questo un naturale effètto del calore; without doubt it is a natural effect of the heat. Sì; ma gli effètti del fulmine alcina vòlta sorprèndono; Yes, but the effects of thunder are sometimes surprising. This passage is clearly a description of consolidated sleep as one party describes sleeping through the thunder storm and sleeping “very soundly” in ‘first sleep” is fully  explained by my contention that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here) *Notes of a Bookworm: Or Selections From the Portfolio of a Literary Gentleman (London, 1828), p. 220. here   “If thou desirest to take the best advantage of thyself, especially in matters where the fancy is most employed, keep temperate diet, use moderate exercise, observe seasonable and set hours for rest, and let the end of thy first sleep raise thee from thy repose; then hath thy body the best temper; thy soul the least incumbrance; then no noise shall disturb thine ear; no object shall divert thine eye; then, if ever, shall thy sprightly fancy transport thee beyond the common pitch, and shew the magazine of high invention.” This quote cannot be a description of segmented sleep because it states that you should normally rise at the end of you first sleep. There is nothing in this passage to suggest anything other than that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here) *Ashburton Guardian, May 16, 1889 Page 2 here “Some days before the late disaster at Samoa the wife of an officer at Mare Island awoke from her first sleep, trembling and in tears, and related to her husband a fearful dream experience.” It is pretty clear from the full quote below that this is a one off occurrence, The following taken from the " Vallejo Times " (U.S.) will afford food for reflection to the lovers of the supernatural :— Some days before the late disaster at Samoa, the wife of an officer at Mare Island awoke from her first sleep, trembling and m tears, and related to her husband a fearful dream experience. She thought she had been im her dream transported to the island of Samoa, and from the shore of the harbor of Apia looked upon the American and German fleets. Suddenly a storm arose and the harbor was swept by a fierce tornado. Ship after ship went ashore, and the spectators united in offering up prayers for the preservation of the remaining vessels. Lastly the Vandalia and Trenton dragged their anchors, and, as the former vessel was dashed upon tee reef and almost immediately Bank, Mrs witnessed the death of Capt Sohumaker, Lieut Sutton, and Paymaster Armes, tbe three officer who were the victims of the actual disaster of March 16th. The picture was so vivid and real that Mrs ' for days was nervous and agitated, thinking only of her dream, and relating it to others, always insisting that the vessels and friends so recently gone from Mare Island must certainly be exposed to some fearful peril. There is nothing in this passage to suggest anything other than that ‘first sleep’ is merely deep sleep (see my discussion here)   * Claude Tillier, My Uncle Benjamin (n.p., 1843), p. 304. I am uncertain what Ekirch is quoting here  as though first published in France in 1843, "Mon Oncle Benjamin" was not available to an English-speaking readership before individualist anarchist publisher Benjamin R. Tucker's translation, which appeared just in before Christmas, 1890  “However, my uncle brought Mr. Minxit back to the Croix-des-Michelins and he went back to bed. He was in that deep annihilation that a first sleep produced when he was awakened by a violent knock on his door. This blow struck my uncle with a painful commotion. He opened his window; the street was black like a deep moat; yet he recognized M. Minxit, and he thought he saw in his attitude something sorry.” The original French is here Toutefois, mon oncle reconduisit M. Minxit jus-qu'à la Croix -des -Michelins, et il revint se mettre au lit. Il était dans cet anéantissement profond que produit un premier sommeil, lorsqu'il fut réveillé par un heurt violent contre sa porte. Ce coup frappa mon oncle d'une commotion douloureuse. Il ouvrit sa fenêtre ; la rue était noire comme un fossé profond ; cependant il reconnut M. Minxit et il crut apercevoir dans son attitude quelque chose de désolé. Il courut vers sa porte ; à peine le verrou fut -il tiré, que le digne homme se jeta dans ses bras et éclata en larmes. The 1890 Tucker translation Boston, B.R. Tucker My Uncle Benjamin; a humorous, satirical, and philosophical novel here   My uncle, however, escorted M. Minxit as far as  Croix-des-Michelins, and then returned to go to bed.  He was in that profound annihilation produced by the first hours of sleep when he was awakened by a violent knock at the outside door. This knock gave my uncle  a painful shock. He opened his window; the street  was as dark as a deep ditch; nevertheless he recognized M. Minxit, and thought he perceived in his attitude indications of distress. He ran to open the door; scarcely had he drawn the bolt, when the  worthy man threw himself into his arms and burst into  tears. My Uncle Benjamin;  Adele Szold Seltzer, New York : Boni and Liveright 1917 here  My uncle, however, escorted M. Minxit as far as  Croix-des-Michelins, and then returned to go to bed.  He was in that profound annihilation produced by the first hours of sleep when he was awakened by a violent  knock at the outside door. Neither of these mention ‘first sleep Just to help Ekirch out with his research here is a German translation by Rudolf G. Binding here  Mein Onkel begleitete Herrn Minxit bis an das Michelskreuz und ging dann heim zu Bett. Er lag in jener tiefen Selbstaufgegebenheit, die der erste Schlaf hervorbringt, als er von einem heftigen Schlag an die Haustür geweckt wurde * George Sand, The Marquis de Villemer (1861), p. 195. Again Ekirch seems to be quoting an unpublished translation from the from the French edition as the first English translation was by Ralph Keeler, Boston: James R. Osgood And Company. 1871. here   He calculated that he could reach Chambon in a half-hour, and that an additional hour would give him time to rouse the physician, talk with him, and return. He could, he ought, to be back before his brother, who now seemed resting quietly, should awake from his first sleep. The Duke withdrew noiselessly, left the house through the garden so as to be heard by no one, and descended quickly toward the bed of the river to a foot- bridge by the mill, and to a path which led him straight to the town. By taking a horse and following the road, he would have made a noise and gained very little time. The Marquis, however, did not sleep so soundly as not to hear him leave the room; but, knowing nothing of his project, and not wishing to hinder his brother from going to rest, he had pretended to be unconscious of everything. Given that the Marquis “did not sleep so soundly to hear him leave the room” does this occurrence “first sleep” really fit Ekirch’s conception of first sleep?   *The Arabian Nights, trans. Mr. Galland  (Paris, 1822), IX here  Again Ekirch is seemingly quoting from the French, an English translation based on Galland’s gives here   In the meantime, the captain of the robbers went from the stable to give his people orders what to do, and beginning at the first jar, and so on to the last, said to each man, 'As soon as I throw some stones out of my window, do not fail to cut open the jar with the knife you have about you, pointed and sharpened for the purpose, and come out, and I will be with you at once.' After this he returned into the kitchen, and Morgiana, taking a light, conducted him to his chamber, where, after she had asked him if he wanted anything, she left him; and he, to avoid any suspicion, put the light out soon after, and laid himself down in his clothes, that he might be the more ready to get up again. Although Ekirch gives English titles and English translations for the following these works have never (with one exception, see below from which he does not quote) been published in English translations. Ekirch gives no clue as to the origin of the translations he quotes and therefore it is impossible to judge the accuracy or veracity of these quotes. * Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marchioness of Sévigné, 1626-1696, Correspondence (Paris, 1675), I, p. 598. * Charles Perrault, Parallel of the Ancients and Moderns . . .  (Paris, 1688-1697), IV. here * J.B. Demangeon, Intellectual physiology, (n.p., 1843) here * D de. Monestrol, Conservation of health: a handbook of hygiene for the use of all . . .  (Paris, 1851). * Journal des villes et des campagnes, Oct. 18, 1851. * Éloges (Bordeaux, 1854).  here * Le Courrier de Bourges  April 29, 1857. * Vastin Lespy, Bearnaise grammar; followed by a French Vocabulary-Bearn Verona, 1858). here * A. Castillon, New butterfly hunt (Paris, 1858).  The book is actually by M. Castillion here  * Jules Duval, Raymond Gayrard, graveur et statuaire : biographies aveyronnaises (Rodez, 1866). here * Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, agriculture, arts and belles-lettres of Aix (Aix-en-Provence, 1873). * Reminder (Paris), January 8, 1881 * Leon Cladel, Leon, [The] Second Mystery of the Incarnation (1883), p. 4. here * Agathon-Jean-François Fain, Memoirs of Baron Fain, (Paris, 1908). here  NB The first English translation of this book was in 1998 * Bulletin of Ecclesiastical Literature (Toulouse, January 1927) * L'Africain : hebdomadaire illustré, September 6, 1931. * Joseph Briand, Complete Manual of Hygiene,  (Paris, 1826).  here * Mercure de France (Paris, 1753-1754). * Lauquel sont contenues ses plus rares expériences pour diverses maladies, (Paris, 1635). here  * Rutebeuf, Complete Works [1260] “De la Griesche d’Yver, p. 72. here  Silvestre Emarges, “Christmas time and legends,” Country Life, December 1938. I do have access to the Country Life archive but this is merely one of hundreds of 20th Century examples of the use  of ‘first sleep’ see here and here  
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