Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK The Fisher translation of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, The Physiology of Taste quoted by Ekirch does contain the phrase ‘first sleep’ here  There are certain psychologists, however, among them Count von Redern, who hold that the soul never ceases its activity; von Redern gives as proof the fact that everyone who is rudely awakened from his first sleep has the same feeling he would experience if he had been interrupted at a very serious task. However the much earlier translation by Robinson 1854 does not use the phrase here  Some psychologists, among others the count of Redern, say that the soul always acts. The evidence is, that a man aroused from sleep always preserves a memory of his dreams. The original passage is  Cependant quelques psychologues, et entre autres M. le comte de Redern, prétendent que l'âme ne cesse jamais d'agir; et ce dernier en donne pour preuve que tout homme que l'on arrache à son premier sommeil éprouve la sensation de celui qu'on trouble dans une opération à laquelle il serait sérieusement occupé. Cette observation n'est pas sans fondement, et mérite d'être attentivement vérifiée. The Plays of John Lyly, Carter A. Daniel, ed. (Lewisburg, Pa., 1988), 123; here  I confesse that I am in love, and yet sweare that I know not what it is. I feele my thoughts unknit, mine eyes vnstaied, my hart I know not how affected, or infected, my sleepes broken and full of dreames, my wakenesse sad and full of sighes, my selfe in all thinges unlike my selfe. If this be love, I woulde it had never beene devised. This passage is clearly describing the effects that being in love has on a person, it is not a description of the characters everyday sleep. The Works in Verse and Prose of Nicholas Breton, Alexander B. Grosart, ed. (New York, 1966), 2: 12; here  "spirits of the studious start out of their dreames, and if the cannot fall asleepe again, then to the Booke and the waxe Candle” This passage does not mention ‘1 o’clock’ contrary to what Ekirch claims Thomas Jordan, "The Dream," in Piety, and Poesy: Contracted, in a Poetick Miscellanie of Sacred Poems (London, 1643); here The Dream. ME thought up to a barren Mountains head, High as ambitious Babel, I was led By my own gentle Genius, there to fee What was nere taught me by Cosmography, The Quarters of the World; Casting my eyes Full in the East, the glorious Sun gan rise Just in my Face, his Beams had so much pow'r, They spoil'd my prospect; yet before an hour Was full expir'd, me thought the Sun began His Declination, it backwards ran, Or else my eys deciev'd me; all the Air Me thought grew thick, as if it did prepare To give the Earth a showre; for I could spie The chanting Birds unto their Nests to flie, Beasts to their Caves, the Night-bird to begin Her dismal Note, as when the Day shuts in: And now the Sun was turn'd to darkness to, Night never was so dark, Day did nere shew So opposetly light, so that my Hand Could scarce declare where my own feet did stand· My Senses all were numm'd, and did resign Their Faculties; I wish'd the Moon would shine, That, since I was depriv'd the short Days light, I might receive som solace from the Night: The Moon did rise, and yet no sooner shone In her full Sphear of Glorie, but was gone, And nothing was left to be understood Where she declined, but an Orb of Bloud. Lord! how I trembled then, so did the Hill Whereon I stood, as if't were Sensible Of this prodigious Change, the Stars did sall As soon as fix, and now, were wandring all: Where were (thought I) th' Astronomers this year, They did not quote this in the Kalender? Now down the Hill I creep'd, purpos'd to see How the great City took this Prodigie: I saw't was full of Lights, ere I was there, I heard the cries of Women, a great fear Possess'd the Poorer sort, and such as those, Whom, Heaven knows, had nought but Lives to lose: The Rich were banquetting, ye might have spyed In such a street a Bridegroom and his Bride Wedded for Lust, and Riches; here agen, A Crew of costly Drunkards, that had been Making one Day of seven; there another, Like cursed Cain, destroying his own Brother: Yonder a Fourth, who, in as great excesse, Wasteth his Soul with an Adulteress: Ere I could turn to such another sight, I did behold in Heaven a strange Light, As if't were burning Brimstone, and, at last, I could perceive it fall like rain, so fast, I thought that Heaven would have dropt, I cry'd All you that will by Faith be Justified, Stir not a foot; this is the Fatal Day, For which our Saviour bids you Watch and Pray. Great Structures were but Bonfires, Turrets swom In their own Lead, whil'st here poor wretches come Half roasted in the Rain, and Mothers flie Laden with pretty Children, till they die: No Dug can still their crying, and each Kisse The Mother gives, a showre of Sulphur is: Letchers, Insatiate Strumpets, with their shames, As they first met in fire, depart in flames; No flattering Epitaph, or Elegie, Hangs on the Herse of proud Nobility. The Epidemick fires, at once, do fling Into one Grave, a Vassal, and a King: Our Judges leave the Senate, throw away Their reverend Purple, and in Ashes pray To that great Judge of Heaven, in whose Eys Relenting Pitty, and Compunction lies: Husbands embrace their Wives, but ere they part, Both burn to Cindars, Death had never Dart That gave such cruel Torments; some do flie To Rivers to asswage their Misery, But all in vain; for fire hath there more power Than ever water had, the flaming showre Is not to be avoided; all do run, But none know whether, now my Dream is done; For here I wak'd, and glad I was to see 'Twas but a Dream; vet Lord, so gracious be To my request, that this Night's Dream may stay Still in my thoughts, then shall I Watch and Pray; Be ever Penitent with holy Sorrow, For fear thou mak'st my Dream prove true to Morrow. The poem gives no indication that it is as Ekirch contends an “early morning dream”. Ekirch uses a partial quote to potentially mislead us into believing the poet was contemplating the dream where as this is a dream about death and hell, and the poet he “Watch and Pray; Be ever Penitent with holy Sorrow, For fear thou mak'st my Dream prove true to Morrow.” Jamie Talan, "Light Sleepers: Artificial Light May Affect Natural Sleep Patterns," Gazette (Montreal), January 13, 1994. Although less likely to be recalled and internalized, dream activity, of course, occurred during "morning" or "second sleep." Some classical authors even believed that dreams were more apt to be "true" closer to dawn, a belief occasionally echoed by early modern writers. Other authorities, however, disagreed, as did most contemporaries in view of the credence they attached to visions irrespective of when in the night they occurred.  Of Ghosts and Spirites Walking by Night . . . , R.H., trans. (London, 1572). here Contrary to what Ekirch says there is no mention of spirits appearing in dreams in the original text “Spirits appeared in old time, and do appeare still in these dayes both day and night especially in the night, and before midnighte in our first sleep.”  Schmitt, "Liminality and Centrality of Dreams," 278. here I am at a loss as to what what Ekirch is referring in this paper BACK
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