Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK I am not sure why Ekirch desides to use a quote (Baxter quoted in Stephen Innes, Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England (New York, 1995), 124;) rather than a reference to the original work The Practical Works of Richard Baxter: with a Life of the Author and a Critical Examination of His Writings by William Orme: Volume 19 London 1830  here P. I will not set you upon too much, nor upon any unnecessary task, lest I hinder you while I seem to help you.  Let the time of your sleep be so much only as health requireth, for precious time is not to be wasted in unnecessary sluggishness. Thomas Elyot, The Castle of Helthe (London, 1539), fols. 45–46 here Of sleape and watche. Cap 30. THe commoditie of moderate slepe, appereth by this, that naturall heate, whiche is occupied about the matter, wherof procedeth nouryshement, is comforted in the places of dygestion, and so digestion is made better, or more perfite by slepe, the body fatter, the mynde more quiete and clere. the humours temperate: and by moche watche all thynges happen co~trarye. The moderacyon of sleape muste be measured by helthe and syckenesse, by age, by tyme, by emptynesse or fulnesse of the body, and by naturall complexions. Fyrste to a hole man, hauynge no devilitie of nature, and digestynge perfytely the meate that eateth, a lyttell sleape is sufficient: but to them, which haue weake stomakes, and do digeste slowely, it requireth, that sleape be moche lengar. semblable temperance is required in youth and age, wynter and sommer. The body beinge full of yll humours, very lytel slepe is sufficient, except the humors be crude or raw, for than is slepe necessary, which digesteth them better, than labour. Semblably, where the body is longe empty, by longe sycknesse or abstinence, slepe comforteth nature, as well in the principal membres, as in all the other. Also regarde muste be hadde to the complexion, for they that ar hot and do eate lyttell, and digeste quickely, a lyttell sleape serueth, specyally to choleryke persones, for in them moche slepe augmenteth heate, more than is necessary, whereby hote fumes and inflamations are often ingendred, and somtyme the naturall choler is aduste or putryfied, as experience teacheth. Fleumatike persons at naturallly inclyned to sleape: and bycause they ingender moche humours, they requyre more sleape than sanguine or cholerike. Persons hauyng naturall melancoly, not procedynge of choler aduste, do requyre very moche sleape, whiche in them com|forteth the powers animal, vitall, and naturall, which ye may find write~ in the tables preceding Sleape wolde be taken not immediatelye after meales, and before that the meate is dyscended from the mouthe of the stomake. For thereby isingendred paynes and noyse in the bely, and digestion corrupted, and the slepe by yll vapours, ascendyng, made vnquiete and troublous. More ouer immoderate slepe maketh the body apt vn|to palseys, apoplexis, fallynge sycknes, reumes, & impostumes. Also it maketh the wyttes dull, and the body slowe and vnapte to honeste exercise. Scmblably immoderate watche drieth to moch the body, and doth debilytate the powers animall, letteth digestion, and maketh the bodye apte to consumptions. Wherfore in these two thynges, as well as all other, a diligent tempe|rance is to be vsed the moderation is best conie|cted for it is harde perfytely to knowe it) by the sensible lyghtnes of all the body, specially of the brayne, the browes, and the eyes, the passage downe of the meate from the stomake, the wyll to make vrine, and to go to the stoole. Contrary wise, heuines in the body and eyes, and sauor of the mete before eaten, signifieth that the slepe was not sufficient. They that ar hole must slepe first on the right side, bycause the meate may ap+proche to the lyuer, whiche is to the stomake, as fyre vnder the potte, and by hym is digested. To them, whiche haue feble digestion, it is good to slepe prostrate on their bealyes, or to haue theyr bare hand on theyr stomakes. Lyeng vpright on the backe, is to be vtterly abhorred. The Schoole of Vertue, and Booke of Good Nourture . . . (London, 1557) Howe to order thy selfe when thou rysest, and in appa|relynge thy body, Capitulo. i. FLye euer slouthe   In health the body therby thou shalte kepe. Muche slepe ingendereth diseases and payne It dulles the the wyt and hurteth the brayne. Early in the mornynge thy bed then forsake Thy rayment put on thy selfe redy make, To cast vp thy bed It shalbe thy parte Els may they say that beastly thou art. So to departe and let the same lye It is not semynge nor yet manerly Downe from thy chamber when thou shalte go Thy parentes salute thou and the famely also Thy handes se thou washe and thy hed keame And of thy rayment se torne be no seame Thy cappe fayre brusht thy hed couer than Takynge it of In speakynge to any man. William Bullein, A Newe Boke of Phisicke Called y Goveriment of Health . . . (London, 1559) here Of slepe and waking'. Sleep is necessary to life and 'is nothinge else but an Image of brother to death, as Tulli saith'. Instructions for true sleep include: having a quiet mind; sleeping at night; not sleeping on your back, 'which bringeth many greuous passions, and killeth the sleper wyth sodden death'; sleeping on the right side is deemed best for digestion. John is advised against over-sleeping, 'for superfluous slepe maketh the sprytes grosse and dul, and decayeth memorye'; six or eight hours is judged sufficient. In times of cold fevers, the patient must not sleep until the trembling has stopped. The chamber must be clean, bedclothes suitable for the time of year and age of people; keeping the head warm is 'very holsom' ; south-facing windows are not good; 'close loftes' are recommended for people with 'cold reumes, dropses, &c'; 'lowe chambers' for 'drye bodies'; in time of pestilence, it is good to shift chambers often. Lying on the ground in gardens, under trees, or near 'stinking pryuies' is discouraged, as is retaining urine for a long time, 'for fear of the stone, and payne in thy raynes [kidneys]'. John confesses that there is nothing he fears so much as the stone, which afflicted his father, prompting a discussion of urine. Andrew Boorde, A Compendyous Regyment or a Dyetary of Health . . . (London, 1547); here The. viii. Chapit doth shewe howe a man shulde order him selfe in slepynge and in [...]e|rynge his apparell. WHan a man hathe exercysed hym+selfe in the day tyme as is reher|sed, he maye slepe soundely and surely in god what chaunce so|euer do fortune in the night Moderate slepe is most praysed for it dothe make parfyte di|gestyon, it doth nurysshe ye bloud, & doth qualyfye ye heate of ye lyuer, it dothe acuate, quyc+ken & refressheth ye memory, it dothe restore nature, & doth quyet al ye humours & pulses [...] man, & dothe anymate, & doth co~forte all ye na+turall & anymall & spyrytual powers of man. And such moderate slepe is acceptable in the syght of God the premysses in the afore|sayde Chapiter obserued and kept. And contraryly immoderate slepe and slugglysshenes doth humecte and maketh lyght the brayne, it doth ingendre rewme & impostumes, it is euyl for the palsy whyther it be vnyuersal or partyculer, it is euyl for ye fallynge syckenes called Epilencia, Analencia, & Cathalencia, Appoplesia, Soda, with all other infyrmytyes in the heade, for it induceth and causeth oblyuyousnes, for it doth obfuske and dothe obnebulate the memorye and the quyckenes of wyt. And shortly to conclude it dothe per|turbe the naturall, and anymall, and spyry|tuall powers of man. And specyally it dothe instigate and leade a man to synne, and doth induce and infer breuyte of lyfe, & detestably it displeaseth God. Our lorde Jesu Chryste dyd nat onely byd or co~mau~de his dyscyples to watche, but dyd anymat them and al other so to do saying. I saye nat onely to you wat|che, but to all men I say watche. And to Peter he sayd, myghtest nat thou one houre wat+che with me, althoughe these holy scryptu|res with many other mo the which I myght allygated for me, be nat greatly referred to thys sence, yet it maye stande here with my purpose and mater without reprehensyon. These maters here nede nat to be rehersed, wherfore I do retourne to my purpose, and do say that the moderacyon of slepe shulde be mesured according to the natural co~plexcion of man, and in any wyse to haue a respecte to the strength and the debylyte to age & youthe and to syckenes & helth of man.  Fyrste as concerning the naturall co~plexcyon of man, as sanguyne and colorycke men. vii. houres is suffycyent for them. And nowe consyde|ryng the imbecyllyte and wekenes of nature a flematycke man may slepe. ix. houres or mo+re. Melancoly men may take theyr pleasure, for they be the receptacle & the dragges of al the other humoures.  Secondaryly youth and age wolde haue temperau~ce in slepynge.  Thyrdly strength may suffre a brounte in watche, the which debilite and wekenes can+nat. As I wyll shewe by a famylyer example. There were two me~ set at the dyce togyther a day and a nyght & more, the weke man sayd to him I can playe no longer. The stronge man sayde to him fye on the benchewhystler wylt thou sterte away nowe. The weke man to satysfye the strounge mannes mynde, appyted & desyre, playeth wt his felow, throghe the which he doth kyll him selfe. The stronge man doth him selfe lytle pleasure al thynges consydered, the whiche I do passe ouer. whefore I wyll retourne to the sycke man, whiche maye slepe at all tymes whan that he maye get it, but yf he maye slepe at any tyme, best it is for him to refrayn from slepe in the day, & to take his natural rest at nyght whan all thynges is or shulde be at rest and peace, but he must do as his infyrmyte wyll permyt and suffre, whole men of what age or com|plexyon soeuer they be of shuld take theyr na+turall rest and slepe in the nyght, & to exchew merydyall slepe. But an nede shall compell a man to slepe after his meate, let hym make a pause, and than let him stand and leane and slepe agaynst a cupborde, or els let him sylte vp ryght in a chayre & slepe. Slepynge after a full stomacke doth ingendre dyuerse infyr|myties, it doth hurt the sp[...]n, it relaxeth the synowes, it doth ingendre the dropsyes and the goute, and doth make man loke euyl coloured. Beware of Ueneryous actes before the fyrste slepe, and specially beware of suche thynges after dyner or after a full stomacke, for it dothe ingendre the crampe, the goute, and other displeasures. To bedwarde be you mery, or haue mery company aboute you, so that to bedwarde no anger nor heuynes, so|rowe nor pencyfulnes do trouble or disquyet you. To [...]edwaade and also in the mornynge vse to haue a fyre in your cha~ber to wast and consume the euyll vapours within the cham|bre, for the breath of man maye putryfye the ayre within the chambre. I do aduertyse you nat to stande nor to syt by the fyre, but stande or syt a good waye of from the fyre takynge the flauour of it, for fyre doth aryfye & dothe drye vp a ma~nes blode, and doth make sterke the synewes & ioyntes of man. In the nyght let the wyndowes of your house, specially of your chamber be closed, whan you be in your bed lye a lytel whyle on your left syde, & slepe on your ryght syde. And whan you do wake of your fyrste slepe make water yf you fele your bladder charged, and than slepe on the lefte syde, and loke as ofte as you do wake so ofte tourne your selfe in the bed from the one syde to the other. To slepe grouclynge vpon the stomacke and belly is nat good, one[...]es the stomacke be slowe and tarde of digestion but better it is to lay your hande or your bed felowes hande ouer your stomacke, than to lye grouelynge. To slepe on ye backe vpryght is vtterly to be abhor[...]ed, whe~ ye you do slepe let nat your necke nother your shoulders, no ther your handes nor fete, nor no other place of your body lye bare vndyscouered. Slepe nat with an empty stomacke, nor slepe nat af|ter that you haue eaten meate one houre or two after. In your bed lye with your heade som what hygh, lest that ye meat whiche is in your stomacke thorow eructuacions or some other cause asce~de to ye oryfice of the stomacke let your nyght cap be of skarlet, & thys I do aduertyse you for to cause to be made a good thycke quylt of cotten, or els of pure flockes or of clene wooll, and let the couerynge of it be of whyte sustyan, and laye it on the fether bed that you do lye on, and in your bed lye nat to hote nor colde, but in a temporaunce. Olde auncyent doctours of Physycke sayth. viii. houres of slepe in so~mer &. ix. houres of slepe in wynter is suffycyent for any man, but I do thynke that slepe ought to be taken as the complexcyon of man is, whan you do ryse in the mornynge, ryse with myrth and remembre god. Let your hosen be brusshed within and without, and flauour the insyde of them agaynst the fyre, vse lynen sockes or lynnen hosen next your legges, whan you be out of your bedde stretche forth your legges and armes and your bobye, coughe and spyte and than go to your stole to make your ege|styon, and exoncrate your selfe at all tymes that nature wolde expell. For yf you do make any restryction in kepynge your egestion or your vryne or ventosyte, it maye put you to dyspleasure in bredynge diuers infyrmyties, After you haue cuacuated your body, & trus|sed your poyntes, kayme your head ofte, and so do dyuers tymes in the daye. And wasshe your handes and wrestes, your face and eyes and your tethe with colde water, & after that you be apparelled walke in your gardayne or parke a thousande pace or two, & than great and noble men doth vse to here masse, & other men than can nat do so but must applye theyr busynes, doth serue God with some prayers surrendrynge thankes to hym for hys many folde goodnes, with askynge mercy for theyr offences, & before you go to your refeccyon moderately exercyse your body with some la [...] meate than accordeth with nature is named replection, or a surfete. Replection or a surfet is take~ as wel by gurgytacyons or to moche drynkyng, as it is take~ by epulacyon of eatig of crude meate, or eatynge more meate than doth suffyce or can be truely dygested. Or els replection or a surfyt is wha~ the stomacke is farced or stuft, or repleted wt to moche drynke & meate, yt the lyuer which is the fyre vnder the potte is subpressed yt he ca~ nat naturally nor truely decoct, defye, ne dygest the super|abundance of meate & drynke the which is in the pot or stomacke, wherfore dyuers tymes these impedymentes doth folow, the tongue is depryued of his offyce to speke, the wytes or sensys be dull & obnebulated from reason. Slouth & slugy shene conseque~tly foloweth, the appetyde is withdrawen. The heade is lyght & doth ake, & ful of fantasyes, & dyuers tymes some be so sopyled, yt the malt worme playeth the deuyll so fast in the heade, that al the worlde ro~neth rounde aboute on wheles then both the pryncipall membres & the offycyal membres dothe fayle of theyr strength, yet the pulsys be full of agylyte. Such replecyon specyally suche gurgytacyons doth in|gender dyuers infyrmytes thorowe the whiche breuite and shortnes of lyfe dothe folowe For the wyse man sayth, that su[...]fetes do kyll many men, and temporaunce dothe prolonge the lyfe. And also it is wrytten Eccle. xxxvii. That there dothe dye many mo by surfette, than there doth by the sworde, for as I sayd, surfetynge ingendereth many infyrmites, as the Idropses, the gowtes, lepored, sausfleme & pymples in the face, beheme~t impressyons, vndy gest humours, opylacyons, feuers, and putryfa[...]cyons. And also it dothe perturbate the heade, the eyes, the tongue, and the sto|macke, with many other infirmyties. For as Galen sayth, ouer moche replecyon or surfe|tinge, causeth strangulacyon & soden death, for as I sayde the stomacke is so inferced, and the lyuer is so sore oppressed that natu|ral heate and the poores be extyncted, wher|fore abstynence for this mater is the moste best and the parfytest medysone that can be. And in no wyse eate no meate vnto the tyme the stomacke be euacuated of all yll humours by vomed or other conuenient wayes, for els crude and rawe humours vndygested wyll multiply in the body to the detryme~t of man. Two meales a daye is suffycyent for a reste man, and a labourer maye eate thre tymes a day, & he that doth eate after lyueth a beestly lyfe. And he that doth eate more than ones in a day, I aduertyse hym that the fyrste refeccyon or meale be dygested or that he do cate the seconde refeccyon or meale. For there is nothynge more hurtfull for mans body than to eate meate vpon meate vndygested. For the last refeccyon or meale whyll let the dyge|styon of the fyrste refeccy on or meale. Also sondre meates of dyuers operacyons eaten at one refeccion or meale is nat laudable, nor it is nat good to syt longe at dyner and sup|per. An houre is suffycyent to syt at dyner, and nat so longe at supper. Englande hathe an euyll vse in syttynge longe at dyner and at supper. And Englysshe men hath an euyl vse, for at the begynnynge at dyner & supper they wyll fede on grose meates. And ye beste meate which be holsome and nutrytyue and lyght of digestion is kept for seruauntes, for whan the good meate doth come to the table thorowe fedynge vpon grose meate, the appe tyde is extynct, but ma~nes mynde is so auy|dous althoughe he haue eate ynoughe whan he seth better meate come before hym agai~st his appetyde he wyll eate, whervpon dothe come repleccyon and surfetes. Michael Cope, A Godly and Learned Exposition uppon the Proverbes of Solomon, M.O., trans. (London, 1580), fols. 85, 415v–16; Loue not sleepe, lest thou come into pouertie: but open thyne eyes that thou maist haue bread ynough. There is no man which in his owne phansie is desirous of po|uertie: Neuerthelesse many sommon it with great hast not mouing a foote but resting at their ease, as the slouthful doe. And Solomon  Note in marg:  Prou. 10. 11. hath somewhat touched it: but he wil not that we rese~ble such slug|gards, as he declareth vnto vs, saying, Loue not sleepe. &c. Hee for|biddeth not one to take his rest, and sleepe, for it is a thing natural to men, which proceedeth not of sinne. For if sleeping had procee|ded of sinne, our Lorde Iesus Christ had not slept as hee did. And men of force must sleepe, as experience sheweth vs. For without  Note in marg:  Gen. 2. 21. sleepe they coulde not performe their businesse. But it is meete that sleepe bee moderate, and temperate and that it be taken at conueni|ent  Note in marg:  Mat. 8. 24. houres. That we resemble not them, which are not content to sleepe a nights, but also spend therein the most part of the day: Nor they which take their pleasure, to play a nights, & then make the day their night, lying, and sleeping til breakefast or dinner bee ready. Solomon forbiddeth vs the loue of sleepe, after the maner of such folkes, to the ende it happen not, that pouertie assaile vs: not that hee meaneth, that the thing which ought principally to keepe vs from the loue of sleepe, is the feare of pouertie: but hee hath re|garde to that which wee feare naturally aboue al thinges, excepte death, and threateneth the slouthful with that, which they feare wil betide them. And after this threatening, hee admonisheth vs to wakefulnes, when hee saith, Open thy eyes, &c. not to playes, and pastimes, and other dissolutions and insolencies, as there are many who are too muche wakeful about the same, but hee admonisheth vs to watche about our buisinesse which is committed vs to doe, as hee sheweth by the promise which hee addeth, saying, That thou maiest haue bread enough, for hee saieth, Hee that laboureth the earth, shalbe satisfied with bread. In eche labour is abundance, the  Note in marg:  Pro. 12. 11. & 14. 23. & 13. 4. soule of the diligent shalbe satisfied.  Lemnius, Touchstone of Complexions, 58; Sleepe and Watch. SLeepe and watche are after one lyke reason & waye to bee considered of, which being mode|ratelye vsed, & within the bounds of mediocrity freque~ted, are very auayleable to health, & bring wyth them most needefull commodityes. Sleepe is nothing els but a restinge of the Animal facultie, and a PawsSingle illegible letterng from the actions and busynes of the day, wherby the vertues of the bo|dyes being faynt, and the powers thereof beinge resolued, are reuyued and made fresh againe, and all the wearie members & Senses recomforted. For when the powers natural be fresh and lusty, natiue heate gathering it self inward, is of more force and strongly applyeth concoction, perfourming the same not onely in the Stomack, but also through the whole body besyde, whose vapour and pleasaunt sent moysteneth the brayne, & brin|geth asleepe the Instrumentes of the Senses.  Note in marg:  The commodities com|modities of sleepe. Nothing therfore after meate moderately taken, is to the body holsommer the~ seasonable Sleepe: for it refresheth the wearyed powers of the body, styreth vp the Spirites, recreateth the mynde, putteth away sorow, & bringeth a man into good and quiet temper. Neyther can health in anye wyse be continued and maynteyned in any parte of the bodye, withoute this amyable recourse and due vse of watch and Sleepe: whereby we wyth|draw our selues for the time, from oure earneste busynesse, and at seasonable houres geeue recreation to our wearyed Spyrits. And after sleepe, fal againe to our busynesse and affayres, whether they be to be done wyth labour of the body or in|dustry of mynde. For howe could mans mynde continue still in his perfect vigour and strength, if these thi~gs by turnes be not vsed, if this varietye of lyfe and quiet resting after labours of the day, be not intermingled? These make the state of oure life the lesse yrksome and burdenous, and vs to be thereof lesse wearye & cloyed. For as Ouid doth rightlye say, That thing that lackes alternal rest, continue cannot long,  Note in marg:  Epist. 4. It makes the povvers of bodye fresh, and vvearyed members, stronge. The Su~ne bei~g once vp, so~dry delightful sights appeare, & innumerable galant spectacles of the world & nature, prese~t the~selues vnto vs, to chase & driue troublesom fa~cies, du~ps, & cogitacio~s, out of our careful & p~e~siue minds. And loke what co~modity we reape by the dayes trauaile, that doth Sleepe in ye night cou~teruayle & requite.  Note in marg:  The day appointed appointed for labour, and the night for rest. For as the day serui~g for watch & dispatch of our needefull busynesse, doth exercise the body, & in hope of Sleepe maketh al thinges lighter and easyer: so the nighte being appointed for rest, bringeth wt it a forgetfulnes of the dayes toyle, & a sweete end of ye labour therof. Wherfore we may not be neg|ligent, remisse and slacke in the due consideracion of these thinges, but carefully beware ye they bee not, eyther vnseasonably, disorderly, or vnmeasurably frequented. So that Sleepe (which belongeth to  Note in marg:  Eight hours for Sleepe. ye night) may be continued neere about the space of 8. houres, or (if Supper were somewhat large and full) somewhat longer. Howbeit in some persons it is not to be measured, so much by the nomber of houres, as by the soundnes & profundity of Sleepi~g, as Porters, Whyrrime~, vehement Laborers,  Note in marg:  Sound Sleepers. Sleepers. Caryers, Saylers &c. For these & such lyke (for that, their braynes are very moyst) do sleepe marueylous soundlye and ca~not be awaked but with much adoe: because their naturall vertue being resolued wyth ouermuch exercyse, desyreth by Sleepe, to be refreshed, and wt the humydity yt descendeth from the brayne, to be repayred & restored: whereby it happeneth that yt vertue Animall, and Instrumentes of the Senses, being lulled in ease and fast deteyned, Sleepe most soundly seazeth vppon them. And yt thing which wearynesse causeth in greate labourers & such as vse much exercyse,  Note in marg:  Whye children chil|dren and Dronkerdes be sleepye. ye same doth moysture and refrigeration in children and dronken folks: for in both of them, heate recuyling to the hearte, (which is the welspring of ye vitalfaculty) & the head likewise stuffed wt tumosities, sleepe happeneth and stealeth vpon them. But they y^Single illegible letter haue the nookes & celles of theyr brain sle~derly moyst,  Note in marg:  Who bee soone awaked awa|ked oute of sleepe. are ready to awake at euery litle styri~g or waggi~g, for yt the thinne vapour & smal fume which possesseth ye head, being nothing thicke, doth quickly vanish & passe away. For I haue knowe~ mauy, worne in a maner to ye stumpes, partly by ouermuch study, partly by Agues & Uenerie, who in their sleepe, plainly & perfectly vnderstoode euery word spoken by the sta~ders by, insomuch yt beinge awaked wt the least noyse y^Single illegible letter might be, they could reco~pt & rechearse ye most part of those things which had bin there spoken & vttered. Not after the guise & fashio~ of some, which of set purpose at ba~quets will cou~terfaite the~selues dronken & a sleepe.  Note in marg:  Wylie winkers. winkers. For these good fellowes vnder colour of being cupshot & heauy headed, do slily vndermine, espie & marke what euerye man sayth at y^Single illegible letter boord, specially of such words, inte~tes & meanings, as me~ being heated & wel whytteled in wyne, do then report, and vnaduysedly vtter. This trick not they only, but promoting Catch|poles,  Note in marg:  Catchpoles. and crafty Scoutes, that raung about the country, to espye how men liue & what they doe, noti~g the dealings and narrowly sifting the lyfe, behauiour, and maners of other men, whereby they gleane to themselues no small gaine & com|moditye. For the fourth parte of the goodes, for their catchpollinge, falleth to them, for their lot and share: which thing maketh them to be very prying, double diligent, and inquisitiue, where to haue a purchase, and by other mens losses to en|rich and greaze themselues. The Poet Iuuenal (a very precise and notable reprehender of vyces, and one that would neuer go behind the doore to tell men their faults) sheweth that this was a cu|stome vsuall and ordinary amonge Baudes and Cuckolds (nay rather wyttoldes) which for hyre would be contented to let out theyr wyues to ope~ prostitution, or whe~ they had anye persons in su|spicion and iealousye. And to the intent the Adulterous Lecherers mighte the more freely and licentiouslye haue the vse of their wyues bodyes, these fellowes as thoughe they had beene busyed in other matters, and looking an other waye, or as thoughe their myndes, eyes, and facultyes animal had bin earnestlye fixed and bente vp|pon other cogitations, tooted and gazed into the toppe of the house and vewed some trimme fee|lings, or Images and pictures, liuely paynted & set out in their Parlours and Chambers. For thus doth the Poet depaynt and set forth in his colours, one of this generation: and by this one, geueth a light to lead and dyrect our coniectures to iudge of the rest. To his ovvne vvyfe, a Baude and Pandar vyle, A vvittold,  Note in marg:  Iuuen. Sat. 1. feigning sleepe and vvynking many a vvyle, VVho can his lyrypoope, and gaze full manerly For birdes nestes in the roofe, vvhile others syckerly, Dubbes him an horned knight, and that right vvorthily. The very same thinge also setteth downe Ouid, and to the same purpose, albeit by other oc|casion taken. If that the goodman haue an heauy noll,  Note in marg:  Lib. 1. Amor. Or els a Burdeaux hammer beating in his head, Both time and place shall vs direct and toll, Till vvith his vvyfe, our purpose vve haue spedd. But now againe to fal into my byas, and leauinge this digression to retourne to my purpose: I say, nothing doth so much conserue, renue, re|uiue and cheerish the powers of body and mynd as Sleepe in the night, take~ about an houre and a halfe after Supper.  Note in marg:  The maner howe to lye in bedde. At which time it is best, first to lye on the righte syde, that the meate maye descende and approche better to the Lyuer, and be the easelyer digested. Howbeit it is not alto|gether amysse nor vnholesome for them that haue feeble digestions, to lye somewhat groueling and prostrate on their bealyes, specially if their Stomacke bee charged wyth anye superfluity. The commoditye whereof, to them whose bellyes bee somewhat swelled and styffe, is right profitable, both for the digestio~ of the meate, & asswaging of all inflation and paine of the Stomacke,  Note in marg:  Lying vpon the backe very vnholsome vnholsome & dau~gerous. dau~+gerous. & casing of ache and gryping in the bowelles. Lying flat vpon the backe is most hurtful and daungerous: for so manye as sleepe after y^Single illegible letter sorte, lye wyth their mouthes open, their eyes staryng, their eyelyddes vnclosed, sleeping very vnquietly, and without a|ny refreshing or ease, by reason that the Muskles of their breast & necke be drawen hard together. And besyde diuers other discommodityes, they be oftentimes troubled with the night Mare, and falling sicknes, and are also subiecte to Palseys, Crampes and Apoplexies: which diseases also are incide~t to them that sleepe at Noone, or mydday vppon their beddes. Let no man therefore of custome vse himselfe to sleepe in the day time,  Note in marg:  Sleeping in the day hurtfull. hurt+full. vnlesse he be thereto driuen by wearynesse and lassitude gotten throughe heate or labour, or when hee hath ouerwatched himselfe the night before. For in such case, a nap at noone may without harme be allowed & borne wtall. And euen as Sleepe vnseasonablye or vnmesurably take~ either by day or night maketh me~ dull,  Note in marg:  The harmes of ouerwatching. ouerwatching. obliuious, lazye, faint, heauy, blockishe, and marreth both wtt and memory: so agayne, watching being not within medtocrytie and measure vsed, dryeth the brayne, affecteth the senses, empayreth memory, dymmeth eyesighte, marreth the Spirites, wasteth naturall humour, hyndereth concoction, and finallye consumeth all the grace, beauty, comelynes and state of the whole body BACK
© Dr. Neil Stanley 2013-2018