Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK Raimundus Lullus, Liber de regionibus sanitatis et informitatis (n.p., 1995), 107; If it is true that the quote from Lull describes “primo somno” as stretching from “mid-evening to early morning” then this would flatly contradicts Ekirch’s assertion that  “Until the close of the early modern era, Western Europeans on most evenings experienced two major intervals of sleep bridged by up to an hour or more of quiet wakefulness” However the actual quote Regio de A est a matutinis usque ad tcrtiam, et vocamus mane; regio de B est a tertia usque ad vesperam, et vocamus meridiem; et regio de C est a vespere usque ad primum somnum, et vocamus occasum Solis; regio deD est a primo somno usque ad matutinam et vocamus mediam noctem. (LRSI. in LULLO, Opera medica, '2', pp. 2-4) Harrison, Description of England, 382. Harrison is talking about the Latin division of time not the English practice which divides the night into “twilight, darkenight, midnight, Vesper. and cocks crowing”. Also this passage states that midnight is the time ‘when men are in their first or deade sleep’ not as Ekirch would contend the time of waking from ‘first sleep’ “In like sort for the night we have none other parts than the twilight, darkenight, midnight, Vesper. and cocks crowing: wheras the Latins divide the same into 7 parts, as Vesper or Vesperugo, as Plautus calleth it, as Virgil useth the word Hesper the evening, which is immediatlie after Crepusculum. the setting of the sun. Crepusculum the twilight (which some call Prima fax, because men begin then to light candles) when it is betwéene daie and night, light and darkenesse, or properlie Concubium. perlie neither daie nor night. Concubium the still of the night, when ech one is laid to rest. Intempestum. Intempestum, the dull or dead of the night, which is midnight, when men be in their first or dead sléepe. Gallicinium, the cocks crowing. Conticinium, when the cocks have left rowing. Matutinum, the breach of the daie, and Diluculum siue aurora, the ruddie, orenge, golden or shining colour, séene immediatlie before the rising of the sun, and is opposite to the evening, as Matutinum is to the twilight.” BACK
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