Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK F. G. Moore, Livy, 6: 372–73 here Ekirch cites Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, book 25 IX line 8 as a example of ‘first sleep’ quoting the translation by Moore 1940 which gives “Hannibal broke camp early in the night (Hannibal concubia nocte movit) i.e. At the time of the first sound sleep, not yet intempesta nocte (towards midnight)” F. G. Moore, Livy, 6: 372–73 here. However other translations differ in their interpretation ‘Early in the night’ Spillan and Edmonds 1879 here  ‘At dead of night’ Church 1883 here   ‘soon after dark’ Roberts 1905 here ‘Early in the night’ Baker 1923 here  The is another example, seemingly missed by Ekirch, further on in Book 25 in chapter XXIII line 16 there is the phrase “principiumque somni esset” which has been translated as ‘be in their first sleep’ by Roberts 1905 here  although again other translations render this differently for example  ‘and begin to sleep’ Baker 1823 here ‘and be beginning to sleep’ Church 1883 here ‘and have begun to sleep’ Spillan and Edmonds 1879 here, ‘sunk in sleep’ Moore 1940 here.
© Dr. Neil Stanley 2013-2019