Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK John Locke, An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding in Four Books (London, 1690), Ekirch’s repeats the folly of his first paper by once again using this quote from John Locke; using a completely out of context fragment, which he then falsely interpreted in order to provide support for his hypothesis.  "That all men sleep by intervals" does not in any way imply that ‘segmented sleep’ was a “common feature of life.” The full quote is unambiguous, showing that the word ‘interval’ in context can only be taken, given the universality of the 2 other ‘qualities’ mentioned, to mean that man sleeps each day. “Because, not knowing the real constitution on which sensation, power of motion, and reasoning, with that peculiar shape, depend, and whereby they are united together in the same subject, there are very few other qualities with which we can perceive them to have a necessary connexion: and therefore we cannot with certainty affirm: That all men sleep by intervals; That no man can be nourished by wood or stones; That all men will be poisoned by hemlock: because these ideas have no connexion nor repugnancy with this our nominal essence of man, with this abstract idea that name stands for. We must, in these and the like, appeal to trial in particular subjects, which can reach but a little way. We must content ourselves with probability in the rest: but can have no general certainty, whilst our specific idea of man contains not that real constitution which is the root wherein all his inseparable qualities are united, and from whence they flow”. here  William Bullein, A Newe Boke of Phisicke Called ye Gouernment of Health wherin Be Vttred Many Notable Rules for Mans Preseruacion, with Sondry Simples and Other Matters, No Lesse Fruitfull then Profitable: Collect out of Many Approued Authours. Reduced into the Forme of a Dialogue, for the Better Vnderstanding of Thunlearned. Wherunto Is Added a Sufferain Regiment against the Pestilence (London, 1559, STC 4041), 90; If the true order of fleepe be obferved un five pointes. firft a quiete mind without the which either there is no fleep, or elfe dreadful dremes turmenting the fpirites. Secondlye the tyme of flepe, which is the nyght, or time of mofte quiet filence for the day flepes be not good, mofte chiefly foone after dinner, except to fick perfones or younge children, in theire times convenient. Thirdly, the manner of fleepe, that is to [efthew] y lying on the back whiche bringeth many generous paffions, and killeth teh fleper with sudden death, To lye upon y left side is very evyl in teh firft flepe but tollerable in the feconde, but the most fureft waye to make y digeftion perfite, is to lye uppom the ryghte fyde. Boorde, Compendyous Regyment In the nyght, let the wyndowes of yonre howse, specially of your chambre, be closed; and whan you be in your bed, lye a lytel whyle on your left syde, & slepe on your ryght syde. And whan you do wake of your fyrste slepe, make water yf you fele your bladder charged, and than slepe on the lefte syde; and loke, as ofte as you do wake, so ofte tourne yourselfe in the bed from the one syde to the other.” A New and Short Defense of Tabacco with Effectes of the Same, and of the Right Vse Thereof (London, 1602, STC 6468.5), sig. C3; This is the text from the page referenced by Ekirch, there is nothing relevant on this page nor indeed in the entire book  by the mouth: or by your expertorating medicines, and procurers of Phleagme to be discharged, and auoided by coughings. But if your meaning be, that it consumeth only that humidity, which is layed vp in the stomach, as in a store-house, to serue to good purpose hereafter; euen in that point also, you are deceiued, considering the great waterishn-sse, and ouermuch moisture, of our country, and the people thereof: as shalbe more at large spoken of hereafter: in so much that there is a great deale mor- feare and care to be had, of the offences, that may grow by too much humiditie in the stomacke; then any whit, to stand in feare, of any great matter, or harme that may ensue, vpon the abating of the abundance, of that humiditie and moisture. And now: whereas you affirme, it maketh, the grosse, and foggy, to be leane, &c. If this be certaine, which by you is put downe and auouched, you haue giuen Tabacco, one of the greatest praises, that can be deuised. And if there were no other matter, why it should be had in good regard: yet for this only point it deserueth immortall praise. You are not ignorant I am sure, how many learned men, haue of long time labored, and do daily busie themselues from time, to time, how to de-rise remedies, to make the grosse, and foggy man, leane, in some reasonable measure, and yet notwithstanding, you see, how few haue, or can effect the same. For my part, I would I were indebted to you, in a good round summe of money, that I might be assured, Tabacco, could worke that feate. Do you but assure me, that it can do it indeed: and I will be bound to assure you, that no Consumption, or decay, either of naturall heat, or radicall John Hall, Select Observations on English Bodies of Eminent Persons in Desperate Diseases, trans. James Cook (London, 1679),  here 209, Mastick Pills, Oil of Nutmegs 3 drops; make three Pills, to take after the first sleep - one, two, three, or four hours after midnight, sleeping after them 221; Of which she took three after her first sleep, once a week This source states that ‘first sleep’ occurs “one, two, three, or four hours after midnight” Andre´Du Laurens, A Discourse of the Preseruation of the Sight: of Melancholike Diseases; of Rheumes, and of Old Age, trans. Richard Surphlet (London, 1599, STC 7304), 190; here   CHAP. IX. What rules are to be obserued in sleeping. Sleepe is one of the chiefe poynts of well ordering and gouerning ones self: concerning which there are certaine generall rules to be obserued of the~ which are desirous to keep back and hinder the hastie accesse of old age. It is good (saith Hippocrates) to sleepe onely in the night, and to keepe waking in the daytime. Sleeping at nooneday is very dangerous, and maketh all the body heauie and blowne vp. It must be obserued not to goe to bed vnder three or foure haures after supper, and then also to take a little walke vp and downe the chamber before you goe into bed. The best and most naturall sleepe is that which lasteth seuen houres, and in that time not to haue ouer many clothes vpon the bed, to the end the vapours may haue the freer passage. One must sleepe hauing their head somewhat raised, least the meate should rise from the bottome of the stomacke vnto the vpper mouth thereof; and in sleeping he must not lie vpon his backe, least the ordinarie excrements of the braine, which are purged by the nose and mouth, should fall vpon the backe bone; and least also that by lying vpon his backe, he should heate the grosse hollow veine and great arterie, which are fastned to the loynes, and so these vessels thus heated, should increase the heate of the reines, ingender the Stone, and send great quantitie of vapours vnto the braine. It is good to take his first sleepe vpon the right side, for seare the liuer should fall vpon the stomacke and oppresse it, as it would doe if he should he vpon the spleene; and further because that lying on the right side, he liuer vnderlaieth the stomacke, and seruing it in stead of a chafing-dish, helpeth disgestion very much. After this he must turne him vpon his left side, to the end that the vapours retayned by lying on the right side, may breathe out: & finally he must lie vpo~ the right side, to the end that what shalbe concocted, may discend the more easily. The parts of the bodie must not be stretched out al along in sleeping, they must be somewhat drawne vp: for as Galen obserueth in his first booke of the mouing of the muscles, the rest of the muscles consisteth in a meane kind of con|traction. And that is the figure, which the Anathomists call the meane or middle figure, which is most naturall and least painfull. And thus much for the generall rules of sleepe, which seeing all old men cannot tell how to keepe, we will permit them to sleepe a little after dinner, in as much as they cannot but lie waken al|most all nights long. Some referre the cause of their lying awake to their temperature, which is drie, and to the sharpe vapours which commonly are raised of salt flegme. This reference clearly states that “the best and most naturall sleepe is that which lasteth seuen houres” no indication of segmented sleep. BACK
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