Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK William Kitchiner, The Housekeeper’s Ledger: A Plain and Easy Plan of Keeping Accurate Accounts of the Expenses of Housekeeping and the Elements of Domestic Economy. To which is Added Tom Thrifty’s Essay on the Pleasure of Early Rising and Scheme for an Early Hour Company (London, 1825), 55. here   There is no time spent so stupidly as that which inconsiderate people pass in a Morning between Sleeping and Waking. He who is Awake, may be at Work or at Play;—He who is Asleep, is receiving the refreshment necessary to fit him for action:—but the hours spent in Dozing and Slumbering are wasted, without either pleasure or profit. The Sooner you leave your Bed the seldomer you will be confined to it. When Old People have been examined in order to ascertain the cause of their Longevity, they have uniformly agreed in One thing only, that they “ All went to Bed, and All Rose Early.” ‘Sleep’, Bangor Weekly Register, 30 May 1827; ‘‘Early Rising’, Brattleboro Messenger, 20 Nov. 1830; New-Bedford Mercury, 6 Sept. 1833; ‘Time for Sleep’, Journal of Health (Philadelphia), 11 Nov. 1829, here  SLEEP, “tired nature's sweet restorer,” is well known to be essential to the existence of man. Those who are long deprived of a necessary proportion of it, have their health impaired, and not unfrequently the period of their existence abridged. Many would appear to imagine that provided a certain number of the twenty-four hours be passed in sleep, it matters little now or where such repose is obtained. This, however, is a very gross error. The accommodations of the night, equally with the occupations of the day, exert a very powerful influence upon the health and well-being of the system. This passage talks merely of “Those who are long deprived of a necessary proportion of it” his has nothing to do with early rising or second sleep ‘Early Rising’, Health Journal, and Advocate of Physiological Reform, 15 Apr. 1840, 8; Herbert Mayo, The Philosophy of Living (London, 1837), 173; here Quantity of Sleep. — The quantity of sleep required by grown-up people ranges between four and nine hours. This has partly to do with peculiarity of constitution. With some the mind and body work quietly and without irritability; others, going through the same round of business and amusement, are more exhausted : the latter require longer sleep. But use has much to do with this, as with other functions; and many suppose a much longer period of repose necessary to them, than their health actually requires. Too much sleep is relaxing. The best rule, for those who are in health and sleep well, is to rise after their first sleep, — when one feels refreshed, and can rise at once with alacrity. Upon indulging in a second sleep, a free perspiration often ensues, and one wakes relaxed, and heavy from sleep, and exhausted. This passage talks about “Upon indulging in a second sleep, a free perspiration often ensues, and one wakes relaxed, and heavy from sleep, and exhausted.” which is simply a description of what we now call sleep inertia, as does not imply any negative health consequences. Early Rising’, Southern Cultivator and Journal of Science and General Improvement, 20 Jan. 1840, 31; ‘Early Rising’, The Friend: a Religious and Literary Journal, 12 June 1852, 310; here EARLY RISING. "Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet With charm of earliest birds."—MILTON. It is evident from the constitution of man, that he was formed for labour. A moderate degree of exercise is necessary for the preservation of health,—necessary to the proper digestion of the aliment we receive, and, consequently, to the nourishment of our bodies ; but it is as evident, from the experience of every one, that by continued labour, the body must sink under excessive fatigue, and man would no longer be able to glorify his Maker in the discharge of those duties appointed him, had not God in infinite wisdom, provided some medium through which he might recruit his exhausted strength, and be refreshed when he was weary. This medium is sleep. The powers of the mind, exhausted by study, and the body wearied by the labours of the day, at the approach of night sink into repose. In the morning, man rises full of life and vigour, to go forth unto his work, and to his labour until the evening. Consider the advantages of early rising with respect to health. Nothing lends so much to invigorate the frame. The genial air of the morning braces the nerves, strengthens the lungs, and exhilarates the spirits; but the lazy custom of lying Inte and long in bed be-clouds the understanding, impedes the circulation, generates diseases of various sons, but especially nervous disorders. The face once glowing with health retains a sickly paleness; the frame once strong and lusty as an eagle, trembles enfeebled by disease. With respect to devotion. No season affords more matter for praise than the morning. The body raised, refreshed and sliengihened, the preservation from the many dangers of the night, the peace in which we lay down, and the safety in which we have risen up, are abundant causes of astonishment and gratitude. . . "He," says Bishop Taylor, "who is in earnest in the work of salvation, will take advantage of the sweet hour of prime, before the busy world are awake, to perform his devotions, and set himself in order fur the business of the day." Its necessity to the despatch of business. In every business there is a multiplicity of affairs which should be laid put in order, and arranged in a regular train. This requires clearness and precision, and for this no season is so opportune as the morning. The student has a more powerful consideration to prevail on him to adopt this wholesome practice, the extension of his lime, which he can employ for the improvement of his understanding. The kings of Egypt were so sensible of its importance, that at day-break, when the head is clearest, and the thoughts most unperplexed, they read the letters they received, to form a more just and distinct idea of the affairs that were to come under consideration that day. But consider its pleasures. The sun now rises from his couch, and by his vivifying beams dispels the mists that overhung the face of nature. Each hedge, each tree, each shrub, re-echoes the notes of the warbling songsters. The listening ear is saluted with the bleating of the sheep, the lowing of the herd, and the whistling of the plough-boy. The eye is dazzled with the splendour of the morning breaking forth from behind the clouds. The busy world awakes, and each goes to the charge appointed him. And has the sluggard nothing to do,—no debt of gratitude to pay to Him who governs and upholds the whole? Does he lose nothing by wasting the hours in bed? Is time, then, of no importance,—time, which is stealing softly, swiftly away? Pregnant with all eternity can give,—pregnant with all that makes archangels smile? Bishop Taylor supposed three hours' sleep in twenty- four to be as much as nature required; Mr. Baxter placed the compulation at four hours; Mr. Wesley thought that healthy men required little more than six hours' rest; but the generality of people lie in bed nine hours. Thus two hours are wasted every day. With close application and a good method of study, three hundred hours are considered quite sufficient to acquire the French language, six hundred hours to acquire Hebrew, one thousand hours to learn Latin, and one thousand Greek,— making altogether two thousand nine hundred hours. But two hours a day for four years is two thousand nine hundred and twenty hours. Thus in the short space of four years, that lime is wasted in which Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and French, might be easily acquired. The spending an hour more in bed than nature requires, may be thought of little importance ; but no one can say the consequences are unimportant. Wise and good men have borne ample testimony to the  advantage and importance of this virtue. The great rule of moral conduct, Lavater says, in his opinion, was, next to God, lo respect time. Time he considered as the most valuable of human treasures, and any waste of it in the highest degree immoral. He rose every morning at the hour of five; and though it would have been agreeable to him to breakfast immediately after rising, he made it an invariable rule lo earn that repast by some previous labour, so that if by accident the rest of the day was spent to no useful purpose, some portion of it might at least be secured beyond the interruption of chance. Dr. Doddridge also remarks, in a note to his " Family Expositor:"—" I will here record an observation, which I have found of great use to myself, and to which I may say that the production of this work, and most of my other writings is owing, viz., that the difference between rising at five and seven o'clock in the morning, for the space of forty years, supposing a man to go to bed at the same hour at night, is nearly equivalent to the addition often years to a man's life." Nor will sitting up late at night make amends for lying late in bed. Midnight studies will prove the bane of the strongest constitution. The late Dr. Owen once said he would gladly give in exchange the learning he had acquired by midnight studies for the health he had lost by them. If then, we value time, if we value our immortal souls, let us rise early. Let us rise early as an instance of self-denial, so shall we be able to endure hardness, as good soldiers. Do we consider the end of our being? We were sent here to lite, not to sleep. What account, then, will those give the King, when he demands an account of their stewardship, who have buried their talent in the earth, and have yawned away a useless life?—-Christian Journal. ‘Early Rising’, Sunday School Advocate, 19 Nov. 1853, 26; Healthful Observances’, Hall’s Journal of Health (June 1861); here  HEALTH TRACT, No. 25. SLEEPING. Inability to sleep is the first step toward madness, while sound and sufficient sleep imparts a vigor to the mind, and a feeling of wellness and activity to the body, which are beyond price. To be able to go to sleep within a few minutes of reaching the pillow, and to sleep soundly until the morning breaks, and to do this for weeks and months together, is perfectly delightful. How such a thing may be brought about, and kept up, as a general rule, is certainly well worth knowing, and will be appreciated, even by those who have lost but half a night's sleep. The reader can study out the reasons of the suggestions at his leisure. Both in city and country the chamber should be on the second, third or higher floor; its windows should face the east or south, so as to have the drying and purifying influences of the blessed sunlight; there should be no curtains to the bed or windows, nor should there be any hanging garments or other woven fabrics except the clothes worn during the day, each article of which should be spread out by it- self, for the purpose of thorough airing. There should be no carpet on the floor of a sleeping-room, except a single strip by the side of the bed, to prevent a sudden shock by the warm foot coming in contact with a cold floor. Carpets collect dust and dirt and filth and dampness, and are the invention of laziness to save labor and hide uncleanness. Ordinarily, mattresses of shucks, chaff, straw, or curled hair are best to sleep upon. For old persons and those of feeble vitality, there is nothing better than a clean feather bed. No one can sleep well if cold. Have as little covering as possible from just above the knees upwards, but cover the legs and feet abundantly, for by keeping them warm, the blood is withdrawn from the brain, and to that ex- tent, dreaming is prevented. There should be no standing fluid of any description, nor a particle of food or vegetation or any decayable substance allowed to remain in a bed-room for a moment; nor should any light be kept burning, except from necessity, as all these things corrupt the air which is breathed while sleeping. The entire furniture of a chamber should be the bed, two or three wooden chairs, a table and a bureau or cheat of drawers. Every article of bed-clothing should be thrown over a chair or table by itself, and the mattress remain exposed, until the middle of the afternoon; not later, lest the damps of the evening should impregnate them. From morning until afternoon of every sunshiny day, the windows of the chamber should be hoisted fully. The fire-place should be kept open, at least (luring the night, thus affording a draft from the crevices of doors and windows. As foul air is lightest in warm weather, it is best that the sash should be let down at the top half an inch or more, and the lower one elevated several inches; by this means the pure and cool air from without enters and drives the heated impure air upwards and outwards. In a very cold room, without a good draught or ventilation, carbonic acid being generated by the sleeper, becomes heavy and falls to the floor; thin gas has no nourishment for the lungs, and to breathe it wholly for two minutes, is to die; it is this which causes suffocation in descending some wells. In summer it goes to the ceiling, in winter to the floor ; hence it is more important that a sleeping-room should have a very gentle current of air in winter than in summer. Never go to bed with cold or damp feet, else refreshing sleep is impossible; but spend the last five or ten minutes before bed-time, at least in firetime of year, in drying and heating the feet before the fire, with the stockings off. Indians and hunters sleep with their feet towards the camp-fire. Different persons require different amounts of sleep, according to age, sex, and occupation. Nature must make the apportionment, and will always do it wisely and safely; and there is only one method of doing it. Do not sleep a moment in the day, or if essential do not exceed ton minutes, for this will refresh more than if you sleep an hour, or longer. Go to bed at a regular early hour, not later than ten, and get up as soon as you wake of yourself in the morning; follow this up for a week or two, and if there is no actual disease, nature will always arouse the sleeper a3 soon as enough sleep has been taken to repair the expenditures of the preceding day, a little more or less in proportion to the amount of bodily and mental effort made the day before. Commonly there will be but a few minutes' difference for weeks together. It is not absolutely necessary to get up and dress, but only to avoid a second nap. Sometimes it is advantageous to remain in bed until the feeling of tiredness, with which most persons are familiar, has passed from the limbs. It is safest and best for all to take breakfast before going out of doors in the morning, whether in summer or winter, most especially in new, flat or damp countries, as a preventive of chill and fever. If from any cause you get up during the night, throw open the bed-clothes, so as to give the bedding an airing, and also with the hands give the whole body a good rubbing for a minute or two; the effect will be an immediate feeling of refreshment, and a more speedy falling to sleep again. This was Franklin's remedy in case of restlessness at night. When it is remembered that one third of our whole time is spent in our chambers, and that only uncorrupted air can complete the process of digestion and assimilation and purify the blood, it is most apparent that the utmost pains should be taken to secure the breathing of a pure atmosphere during the hours of sleep; and that the most diligent attention in this regard is indispensable to high health. Chrystal, Health and Long Life, 57; Nature is her own interpreter,and unless disturbed by some external cause, it is time to get up when conciousness is restored. There is no worse habit than trying to go back to sleep for five or ten minutes, and especially when this is repeated several time before getting up, this second sleep is forced and therefore unnatural, and one is often more  exhausted by it tan before going to sleep for the first time; this is tippling in sleep and has the same stupefying effect as whisky tippling This passage talks about going back to sleep “for five or ten minutes” Ekirch cannot seriously be equating this with his idea of ‘second sleep’ Cooley’s Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts and Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions, and Trades: Including Medicine, Pharmacy, Hygiene, and Domestic Economy. Designed as a Comprehensive Supplement to the Pharmacopœia and General Book of Reference for the Manufacturer, Tradesman, Amateur, and Heads of Families, 6th edn, 2 vols. (London, 1880), ii, 1501; here As regards the sleep of adults, if the slumber has been of average length, or the subject of it awakes fully refreshed there from, a second sleep instead of being conducive is prejudicial to health, and should never be encouraged. John Abernethy, Surgical Works, new edn (London, 1815), 94; here   I also caution patients against sleeping too much waking from sleep indicates that the bodily powers are refreshed,  many persons upon first waking feel alert and disposed to rise, when upon taking a second sleep they become lethargic, can scarcely be awakened, and feel oppressed and indisposed to exertion for some time alter they have risen. A simple description of what we no know as ‘sleep inertia’ Campbell, Headache and Other Morbid Cephalic Sensations, 218–19. here An individual wakes, let us say, at 6 A.M., and feel inclined to get up, but this being earlier than his usual time for rising he elects to stay in bed, and falls asleep, to wake later with a headache, - a result all the more likely to occur if his second sleep has been light and fitful BACK
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