Dr Neil Stanley Independent Sleep Expert
BACK I I have discussed this topic more fully here and here Paul Bohannon, ‘Concepts of Time among the Tiv of Nigeria’, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, ix (1953), 253;  “The Tiv are much less specific about time during the night. The time between dusk and about 10 o'clock is called "sitting together" (teman imongo). After that follows "the middle of the night" (helato tugh), which overlaps with the "time of the first sleep" (icin i mnya mom); "the time of the second sleep" (acin a mnya ahar) is about 3 AM or a bit later. The pre-dawn breeze (kiishi) gives its name to the period just before dawn”. Paul and Laura Bohannon, Three  Source Notebooks  in  Tiv  Ethnography  (New  Haven,  1958),  357,   “Babies and children are not trained to take naps, nor, so far as that goes, to “get a good night’s sleep”a concept alien to Tiv.  Adults nap during the day in snatches of leisure, or when they feel like it; at night, they wake when they will and talk with anyone else awake in the hut, or, if there is a moon, people stay outside working and chatting. Children follow this pattern. Day or night they are to be seen playing or napping, at pleasure, indoors and out in the environs of adults. They are never told, ‘It is time to go to sleep’.”  H. U.E. Thoden van Velzen and W. van Wetering, The Great Father and the Danger: Religious Cults, Material Forces, and Collective Fantasies in the World of the Surinamese Maroons (Dordrecht, 1988), 342; “at about ten o’clock at night, villagers were disturbed in their first sleep and summoned to the main Gaan Gadu shrine. By the light of an oil lamp, the startled villagers saw Akalai” In context ’first sleep’ could simply mean ‘deep sleep’. This is an example that challenges Ekirch’s assertions that “Typically, descriptions recounted how an aroused individual had "had," "taken," or "gotten" his or her "first sleep." and that “the vast weight of surviving evidence indicates that awakening naturally was routine, not the consequence of disturbed or fitful slumber.”   Frank Modder, ‘Sinhalese Weights and Measures’, Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, xii (1892), 193. here  It is important to note that two ‘peyas’ are equivalent to total of 48 minutes, which would seem to cast doubt as to whether this is actually a description of ‘segmented sleep’ as described by Ekirch.  The full passage is Ira bahi- nawd, the sun sinks down, plainly describes the apparent phenomenon. This time is also known as hendeiva, hende veldwa, or havas-waruwa. Harak dakkana veldwa, the time when cattle are driven home to their pinfolds, is about 5 o'clock, 2 ½ peyas before nightfall.* Miniha penna nepenna veldwa, when a man may or may not be recognised, is dusk, which is also known as tharu pena veldwa, the time when the stars are seen. Bimata karuwala vetena veldwa, the time when darkness sets in ; kurullo gas yana veldwa, the time when birds go to roost; pe tetiya veldwa, alle iri pena nepena veldwa, gas wala neti nepena veldwa, the negative forms of the expressions used to denote the time at dawn." The time when lamps are lit," and " the evening meal " or " supper," are points of time from which the Sinhalese reckon backwards and forwards in peyas. "The time when a man wakens after his first sleep," nindak budiyald eha eruna — generally two peyas — is rather indefinite, varying with the habits of the sleeper, but it is a common expression.! And then we come to pahalos-peya, " 15 o'clock," or " mid- night," also known as maha re or maddima re) Ira bahi- nawd, the sun sinks down, plainly describes the apparent phenomenon. This time is also known as hendeiva, hende veldwa, or havas-waruwa. Harak dakkana veldwa, the time when cattle are driven home to their pinfolds, is about 5 o'clock, 2 ½ peyas before nightfall.* Miniha penna nepenna veldwa, when a man may or may not be recognised, is dusk, which is also known as tharu pena veldwa, the time when the stars are seen. Bimata karuwala vetena veldwa, the time when darkness sets in ; kurullo gas yana veldwa, the time when birds go to roost; pe tetiya veldwa, alle iri pena nepena veldwa, gas wala neti nepena veldwa, the negative forms of the expressions used to denote the time at dawn." The time when lamps are lit," and " the evening meal " or " supper," are points of time from which the Sinhalese reckon backwards and forwards in peyas. "The time when a man wakens after his first sleep," nindak budiyald eha eruna — generally two peyas — is rather indefinite, varying with the habits of the sleeper, but it is a common expression.! And then we come to pahalos-peya, " 15 o'clock," or " mid- night," also known as maha re or maddima re) BACK
© Dr. Neil Stanley 2013-2018